For anyone interested in the evolution of electronic money and the intersection between digital financial services and the real world, Kenneth Odero has written a superb study of the failure of the Kenya’s attempt at cashless public transport. I won’t quote the key points - I urge you to read the whole - but I will draw your attention to his key conclusion.
In this context, it is therefore not surprising that the uptake of electronic ticketing has failed to take off. Despite the convenience it brings to the commuters, the system has a critical design flaw - it could not work considering the power structures that exist around the public transport system.
Money is not a neutral actor. Replacing dumb money with smart money changes power structures.